subject index
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CHAPTER XVII

ADMINISTRATION OF MISS BLANCHARD.

FROM 1883.

DURING the school year 1882-3, there was still hope that Miss Ward might be able to return, and the school was meanwhile in the care of the associate principals, Miss Blanchard and Miss Edwards. The attendance was large, and the year was pleasant and prosperous. Several important acquisitions and improvements marked its progress. Among these was the purchase of the estate next the seminary grounds on the north, once belonging to the Dwight family, and afterwards to the late George Chamberlain, Esq. Besides a large dwelling house, it included seven acres of land. The house, after some alterations and repairs, was principally devoted to the classes in drawing, and to music rooms. The need of the latter had been felt for some time, as the number of those taking private lessons had increased. And the grounds became the more attractive by so large an addition. 

In the autumn of 1882, a small greenhouse, costing about five hundred dollars, was built at the south end of the gymnasium. It has not only been a constant source of enjoyment, but has also furnished a winter home for many delicate and beautiful plants from the botanical garden. It was provided by the thoughtful kindness of a former member of the seminary, Miss Emma E. Dickinson, of Fairport, New York. Another, Mrs. Ruth (Washburn) Bancroft, of Buffalo, a pupil in Miss Lyon's time, sent five hundred dollars for renovating the seminary hall; and this having been done, the young ladies themselves secured funds for replacing the old 

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settees with chairs. A surplus remaining from their gift was appropriated to improvements in the reading room. There were important donations to the art gallery, including paintings, casts of noted sculptures, and Chinese bronzes of great antiquity and value. 

There were during the year several special courses of lectures, among which was one by Dr. William T. Harris, on the philosophy of education, a short historical course by Dr. John Lord, and one on biology by Professor Rice, of the Wesleyan University, at Middletown, Connecticut. 

At their annual meeting, June 20, 1883, the trustees passed a vote of thanks "to the associate principals, Miss Blanchard and Miss Edwards, who have administered the government and discipline so wisely and successfully during the absence of the principal." The resignation of Miss Ward having been accepted, Miss Blanchard was unanimously elected principal, with Miss Edwards as her associate, which offices, respectively, they continue to hold. 

The period has been one of prosperity and growth. The attendance has been large; and though the building of a house for the steward has left free for students' use several additional rooms in the south wing, it has not been practicable to receive nearly all the well qualified applicants. This year, 1886-7, all the available rooms in the Dwight house have been used for dormitories. 

Early in 1884, the front parlors were handsomely refurnished by the generosity of some of the trustees, who kindly took upon themselves not only the expense, but also the superintendence of the matter. To these parlors the young ladies are accustomed to resort at pleasure, during the recreation hours before and after tea. 

The paper mill property was purchased in the summer of 1884. This secured the control of its water power, should it sometime be needed for making electric light, or for any other purpose; and also of the 

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supply for watering the lawns and botanical garden. The pavilion in Goodnow Park was built the same year, and the house for the steward the summer following. 

In 1886-7, the library building was enlarged by adding at the north end another room, nearly as large as the first. It is occupied by cases compactly arranged, which will shelve twenty or twenty-five thousand volumes on one floor; and is capable of being so modified as to hold many thousands more, should it by and by be needful. Double fire-proof doors separate it from the original room, which with its eleven or twelve thousand volumes continues to be a constant resort during thirteen or fourteen hours of the day. There is a classified index to the library, as well as a card catalogue for public use, besides the official card catalogue. As yet, the library has only the nucleus of a permanent fund, but there are annual appropriations from the general fund for the purchase of books. 

Besides numerous gifts for the art gallery and cabinets., there have been important additions to the apparatus, particularly to that for microscopical study. One friend gave a thousand dollars for this purpose, in 1885; and over three hundred had been sent a short time before by alumnae in Boston and Worcester. There are at present twenty compound and twenty-four dissecting microscopes, with a fine microtome and other accessories, in daily use by enthusiastic students and teachers. 

In regard to the course of study, the requirements for admission have been somewhat increased, and modifications made by which time is secured for further progress in certain departments. Text books and works of reference are supplemented by frequent lectures from teachers, in addition to the regular courses given by the non-resident lecturers. In 1883, Professor Mears, of Williams College, became the lecturer in chemistry; and in 1885 Professor Kimball, of the Worcester Technical Institute, the lecturer in physics. Besides the regular lectures, there have been short courses in 

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biology by Professor Wilson, of Bryn Mawr College, and Professor Sedgwick, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; also in political science by Edward W. Bemis, Ph.D. 

For years, the teachers of various departments have from time to time availed themselves of the advantages of the leading technological institutes, and have also had private instruction from specialists in their respective studies. Physics, chemistry, botany, and zoology have been thus pursued in repeated instances, not to mention the special study of mathematics, psychology, and ancient languages. 

The amount of work done by students beyond what is required has for several years been constantly increasing. In 1884-5, eighty did advanced work in languages, literature, mathematics, or sciences, during a part or the whole of the year; in 1885-6, the number was over a hundred. In most cases, the time thus devoted - perhaps a year or more - is taken before completing the regular course, rather than after graduation. Laboratory work, in one line or another, is found to have strong attractions for many; in some cases, it has been pursued for two or three years beyond the regular curriculum. The number of hours per week thus spent has varied from three or four to twelve or fifteen. In each department, work in advance of the course is encouraged, and provided for as far as desired. 

The following extract from one of the journal letters gives a good picture of seminary life at the present day. It was written in June, 1885, by Miss Bowers:- 

    If you were here to-day, this rare June Wednesday, your first thoughts might be for the beauty out of doors rather than for friends within. Can we help you to see it? Walk with us up the winding footpath to our pretty pavilion in Goodnow Park on Prospect Hill. How beautiful the noble avenues of trees that used to bound our grounds; the little brook and quiet pond where the boats "float double," boat "and shadow"; the old chestnuts around us, and the infant trees for our future groves; the picturesque old cider mill the field to the east, and the grist mill down by the pond; the encircling hills, and the gates ajar between Holyoke and Tom to let the sunset glory through. Descend by the carriage road that winds up from the
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    brook toward the south and around the pavilion at the summit of the hill. The meadow is full of buttercups and daisies as of old, and the little foot bridge by the wheel house is the same, but the boat house below is a new resident, and in the basin above the bridge there will soon be a fair white host of water lilies. Pause awhile, if you will, among the sweets of the botanical garden, then cross the grass to Miss Lyon's grave. 

    The English ivy, which covers the ground of the enclosure, is somewhat winter-killed each year, but makes afresh a rich green carpet each summer. How beautiful this little grove, and how merry the occupants of the hammocks and the grass beneath its shade! Answering voices float up to us from the boats on the water, and across the grass front the lawn-tennis players, under the drooping branches of the great black walnut tree, the royal resident on our domains. A little nearer us, victors and vanquished are laughing over a game of croquet. Girls are scattered about the grounds, singly or in groups, busy with book or needle work or pleasant chat, and we know they are taking in fresh life for nerve and heart and brain. Sweet recreation days in field and wood and on these beautiful grounds! They must be, beyond our power to estimate, "faire gospellers" of peace. Even the walk from the house over to Williston Hall must compose one's mind for a recitation there! The supper bell calls; the evening brings all home to quiet and sleep, from which we wake into a study-day world. Will you stay through its hours? 

    There is no bell in the morning until the rising bell, which is itself somewhat tardy in rising, as compared with the old standard, and has a subdued tone of voice, as if afraid it may wake somebody. Girls must be prompt at breakfast and quite ready for it, but they may choose their own time of rising, if it be not too early! 

    Look about in the basement a little, after breakfast. The elevator, you remember, cuts out one corner of the middle room, arid the bread closet occupies another. The bread cutter close at band; the great oven in the domestic hall; the closet built against the oven, with rows of shelves, whereon all our bread is placed to rise and kept moist by a tiny spray of steam; the big broilers for steak; the former oven converted into a great plate warmer; the steam kettles which supply so easily the needful quantity of coffee or chocolate or soup; the soapstone sinks for dish washing; the flour sifter; the refrigerators, for butter, for milk, for other food, - all these make work easier or furnish our table more healthfully, and something is brought in every year to these ends. 

    The bell for morning devotions calls us to the seminary hall, made very attractive now by the furnishings of a few years past. Miss Lyon, Miss Fiske, Miss Hopkins, Mrs. Eddy, Deacon and Mrs. Porter, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Williston, look down upon us from the walls, and choice photographs are there besides. Miss Edwards is our preacher, and we doubt if many pulpits are filled more acceptably. Can girls go away without receiving life-long impressions for good from that desk? We have responsive Scripture readings in these, morning exercises, and

[PLATE INSERTED BEFORE PAGE 273] 

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    it is surely nowhere better done; the many voices are as one. The half-hour over, let us go first into a botany class in Williston Hall. A lesson has been assigned from the text-book, but a part of the hour will be occupied by a lecture on the same topic, giving what the book does not. Notes must be taken and reported the next day, when they have also a lesson on another assigned subject. One side of tile recitation room is taken up by the cases and drawers of the great herbarium; botanical specimens of various kinds, that are. hung all over the other walls, make the room as bright as a gallery of paintings. Little tables are here whereon to use the dissecting microscopes and to make the drawings required. The great work room of these classes is the world in the open air, and especially the botanical garden, where you may see them at almost any hour of the day, intent on finding out all the family secrets of the garden dwellers. You know, I think, that a part of their required study comes in the autumn, for the sake of "the golden rod on the hill, and the aster in the wood, and the yellow Sunflower by the brook," and others of their kin. The recitation over, the bell-glasses are removed from the compound microscopes, by the windows, and the "spirogyra" girls are at them. Miss Hooker calls them so because the students beginning botany in German universities who do the same work get the appellation of "spirogyra men." All winter, these girls were studying dried specimens, or mosses, ferns, and lower plants from Wardian cases. The life history of the fern, tracing its development from the spore, making drawings of all stages of growth, cutting sections of stems to study tissues, analyzing all the North American ferns they can obtain, following out much the same plan in the study of mosses and grasses - this has been the work of most of them. One Saturday we were summoned excitedly by a radiant student to see something which the microscope had caught just at the right moment - moss antherozoids in motion - a rare sight. Hasty feet sped over to Williston Hall as long as the show lasted; but an irregular procession of girls was moving in an opposite direction at the same time, for the sun was greatly disturbed, and they went to the observatory to witness the "prominences" which were unusual and wonderful in variety and form. The infinitesimal and the vast, too small, too large for our limited eyes to see, were brought curiously near together before our awed and admiring gaze that day. The observatory work is in the hands of Miss Bardwell, an enthusiastic student as well as teacher, who does all she can to make the "spacious firmament" itself an illustrated text-book for her classes. She is our herald, to give tidings from her watch tower of new-comers in the fields of space, or of changes there among the shining host already known. Whenever there is anything of unusual interest to be shown, she spends many hours at her post, aside from the time given to her classes. One might well wish to be a pupil again, in one of those classes, for the sake of the nightly visions of "other worlds than ours." 

    Now let us turn from "the heavens above" to "the earth beneath," with the zoology class. They're intent on earth-worms to-day, "a good 

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    typical form"; the general anatomy, the structure, the development, as revealed by the microscope, are studied thoroughly. Another day we should find them at work on clams or on lobsters in the same way; upstairs, in the bird alcove, we shall find others analyzing unmounted birds, kept for such use. Come to the work room in the basement and see what some of the advanced students are about. It must be the medically inclined who enjoy so much these dissections. They, as well as the students in the regular classes, are required to make many drawings. One has mounted the skeleton of a cat, going through every step of the process herself. Miss Clapp's "retainers" and offerings are many. The ferryman sends tidings of a cuckoo's nest by the ferry; one boy brings very large earth-worms, another some field-mice, or a snake, or a bird's nest; three infant rabbits, ploughed up in a field, have afforded us all much amusement. Observations in the quadrangle lead to the belief that every girl in school has been laid under bonds to bring a mud turtle there, whose end is biology. And a cat sometimes comes - alas, poor pussy! The zoology room is used by the physiology classes also - did you notice the models, really beautiful in their way, of eye, and ear, and throat? One has admirable opportunity to study comparative anatomy from the skeleton and manikin here, and the dissections in that basement room. There are no recitations in physics and chemistry this term,* so we will leave the laboratories and apparatus, with their manifold facilities, and go for a few moments to the rooms for geology and mineralogy. One wants a long time to see the treasures in the five rooms, but perhaps the greatest of them in the eyes of Miss Cowles, at present, is the lithological microscope in her class room, so lately given by tile Worcester Alumnae Association. She had an enthusiastic class in mineralogy through the winter, who took it as an optional, and they enjoyed greatly the crystallography which the microscope helped them to know. Looking into that tube sometimes was like reading the twenty-first chapter of the Revelation, and one forgot science in such visions of splendor and purity. 

    We want to take you over to our two-year-old house for drawing and music - the old Dwight place. You may stop to admire the smooth-shaven lawn between it and the seminary, with its scattered trees and shrubs. The pupils do a great deal of charcoal work; here are some lovely little landscapes, taken from nature; many are copying front casts; some are making portraits from photographs or from life. Coming back to the great house, let us step into the elevator and go up to the rooms for painting, at the north end of the upper floor. The work is done in both oil and water-colors, and is mostly fruit and flowers. 

    It is time for us to descend from high art to our dinner in the basement, yet we think you will agree with us that something of high art 



    *Much advanced work is done in chemistry, chiefly in qualitative analysis. The small physical laboratory lately fitted up affords increased facilities for experimental work, in which an extended course is arranged. More room is greatly needed in this as well as the other departments of natural science.
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    has been here also, in the making of this delicious bread and biscuit, if in nothing else. The girls made it all, and they have prepared all this dinner under the supervision of the genial and considerate matron, who finds them almost always "most helpful and pleasant to work with." And they will have a good time over the dish washing by and by; if you don't believe it, stay one day after dinner and use your eyes and ears. But they will not do all the work that their mothers did when here, neither will they on Wednesday. It has seemed best to make changes from time to time, giving some of the harder parts of the domestic work into the hands of women who come in from the village; the man who took the place of Cornelius gives all his time to the baker's and other kitchen work; the "moping circle" that a girl once wrote home about, is a thing of the past, unless the use of a dish mop entitles one to a place in it. There is still abundant opportunity to learn promptness, efficiency and care-taking for the common good. Newspaper and magazine articles, and cooking schools for the wealthier classes, are at one with seminary teachings more than ever, now, in dignifying housework by bringing into prominence its scientific and aesthetic aspects; we want these girls to enter also into the higher spirit that says with George Herbert,
      "Who sweeps a room, as for Thy laws,  
      Makes that and the action fine." 
       
    It is time for the afternoon recitation hours-only two now, and only three in the morning, because more time is given to each. These history classes have gathered their store of knowledge from their richly furnished alcove in the library, using printed topic books prepared by their teachers; but you will find that they have been to the reading room as well, and know something of the Greece and Rome and England of to-day, as well as of the centuries gone. 

    If the English literature class is discussing Lady Macbeth's or Portia's character, we think we can promise you some bright and discerning remarks of their own, not the commentators'; if they give you some of Bacon's Essays in their own or in his words, you will be glad that they have such weighty antidotes to the light reading which most girls take in such large and frequent draughts. It is an encouraging symptom in these cases that they do take and enjoy the antidote so well. 

    Since on making this visit to us, you have laid aside "the prejudice in favor of taking the body with you," you are able, of course, to visit any number of classes; you can hear the original demonstrations in geometry; the attempts at speech and the successes of the would-be French and German girls, compelled to close attention by having not a word of English to help them in their efforts to understand and be understood; the talk about the last amendment to the Constitution or the aspects of the Indian question, in the class in civil government; and - O "most potent, grave, and reverend" Seniors, forgive its our seeming neglect - the animated discussion on some question in moral science or Butler's Analogy.

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    In the half-hour after recitations are over, let us go into a choral class, and listen to the noble chords of which we never tire, in such anthems as "I waited for the Lord," or "O rest in the Lord," or to some sweet Ave Maria, or a gay song, equally well rendered in its way. The bell rings for "sections." You remember the first thing in order, and you miss a number of familiar items, if you've been away some years. Changes have been made from year to year which have lessened the number of family regulations, or made some of them requests rather than requirements, but abundant quiet is still secured for study and sleep, and the "still hour," and punctuality everywhere no less insisted on. "Hall exercise" follows, sometimes very short, or omitted entirely if there is an extra engagement for the evening. Before and after supper you will want to pay visits to the reading room and the parlors of whose new furnishings and beauty we wrote you a year ago. We have enjoyed them thoroughly. On Thursday evening, as of old, comes the family gathering for prayer in the seminary hall; on Tuesday evening, a general recess meeting in the lecture room; on other evenings, the little recess meeting - "sweet hour of prayer." How very few of all Holyoke's daughters to whom the name does not recall some of the tenderest and most sacred hours of life, when "Heaven came down our souls to greet." Dear sisters all, "though sundered far," gather often, we pray you, "around one common mercy seat" to ask that the recess meeting and the "half-hour," may be held sacred always, and prized as the most valuable hours of these student days.
The religious history of these years has been similar to that of the period which preceded it. In 1882-3, it was noted that there was "growth in grace among Christians, and marked attention on the part of all the school. Cases of conversion were attended by decided conviction of sin, though the work went on quietly." In 1883-4, the journal says, "As the weeks have gone by, one and another has said for the first time, 'My Saviour!' We have seen with deep delight that many of our girls are steadily growing into 'perfect women, nobly planned'; we know that a quiet work of grace has gone on in many hearts, because of its daily fruits - the prayers in the recess meetings, the faithfulness in work, the Christian spirit shown in many ways." 

The year 1884-5 was one long to be remembered, on account of a marked and gracious spiritual quickening early in the first term, the influence of which continued through the year, and perhaps in a degree to the 

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present time. It was in part the fruit of special labors in the parish, in the benefits of which the seminary family shared. Mr. Moody spoke twice in the church, at the outset, and once at the seminary. He was followed by Rev. Rufus Underwood, the evangelist, who, with the pastor, Dr. Love, held meetings in the church for two or three weeks, and frequently spoke at the seminary. "What this season of progress has been to Christians, as well as to others," says the journal, "was apparent in a prayer meeting near the close of the term. Miss Blanchard had invited the young ladies to testify of the spiritual blessings they had received, in notes without signature. It strengthened our faith to hear the words that came in response. They had 'become Christians'; they had 'learned to love God's word'; they had 'received answer to the prayer of years'; they had 'found the half-hour precious'; they had 'felt the love of Christ inspiring them to service.' This has been shown in many little acts of self-denial for Christ's sake, and in the spirit of responsiveness to the many appeals for benevolent objects." 

In 1885-6, - "more than half of those who at the opening of the year did not count themselves disciples have given evidence of a change of heart; and some of the few remaining seem not far from the kingdom of God. . . . There has been a prayerful spirit on the part of many, and earnest Christian work." 

There is a temperance society to which many of the students belong, - a branch of the Women's Christian Temperance Union, - whose enthusiastic meetings, conducted by themselves, are attended by nearly the whole family. The monthly concert of prayer for missions is regularly observed, as always in the past; and reports on special topics are presented by some of the young ladies, while facts of interest are voluntarily contributed by others. The regular weekly meeting of the school is becoming largely one of conference as well as prayer, helpful thus to better mutual acquaintance, and closer sympathy in the Christian life. 

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The number and variety of Christian enterprises that in these days come before the school is great, and it has its representatives in nearly all of them. Frequent letters from well remembered friends who are teaching among the freedmen or the poor whites at the South, among the Indians or the Mormons at the West, make the need of such labors seem real, and their reward worth the self-sacrifice they cost. The intimate connection with the Holyoke schools in Cape Colony - which in their spirit and aims are so truly in sympathy with missionary work, and are already doing so much in that line - tends to a like result. 

During Miss Blanchard's administration, several of the seminary teachers have gone to take up some form of Christian service in foreign lands. Two of these are in Turkey: Miss Helen E. Melvin, of the class of '79, who went in 1883 to teach at Constantinople; and Miss Ella T. Bray, of the class of '83, - now Mrs. Dr. Graham of Aintab, - who went out in 1885. Miss Mary Ella Spooner, of the class of '72, and a teacher at the seminary from that time, left in 1884, to teach in the Hawaiian Islands, as lady principal of the Oahu College; and in 1887, Mrs. Sophie (Smith) Burt, a graduate of Oberlin, and a seminary teacher for two years, went also to the islands, to assist in the school for native boys at Hilo, of which her husband, Rev. Arthur W. Burt, is principal. 

In June, 1884, the question of appointing women on the board of trustees - which had been for some time under consideration - was affirmatively settled. It was voted that henceforth the principal should be a member ex officio, and Mrs. A. Lyman Williston also was chosen a trustee. In 1886, Mrs. Helen (French) Gulliver was elected. At the same time, it was decided that the principal should be ex officio a member of the executive committee. 

In 1885, the steward, Mr. Ithiel Lawrence, resigned the position which he had ably filled since 1866. The board passed a vote highly commending the efficiency 

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and fidelity with which Mr. Lawrence had conducted the business committed to his care, and expressing "the most hearty good wishes for his welfare, and that of his highly esteemed wife, during their remaining years." Mr. Lawrence was succeeded by Mr. David E. Phillips, of Columbus, Ohio, who filled the position with great ability and acceptance; but resigned in 1886 on account of business inducements elsewhere. The present steward is Mr. Lewis H. Porter, of Williamsburgh, Massachusetts. 

In concluding the history of this period, it is proper that there should be a brief statement of the present financial condition of the seminary. Its principal permanent funds are, that for aiding deserving students, and the "general fund," the income of which is at the disposal of the board for the various needs of the institution. 

The need of an education fund was early recognized, and efforts were made by trustees to secure donations for this object; but previous to 1872, the amount obtained was only five thousand dollars. A legacy of fifteen thousand dollars expressly designed for the education fund, from Miss Phebe Hazeltine, of Boscawen, New Hampshire, was received in 1872-3; and other legacies and donations which came in during Miss Ward's administration raised the total amount to twenty-eight thousand dollars. Since that time, it has increased to forty-five thousand dollars. There are, besides, two loan funds of five thousand dollars each, for the same purpose; one of which was given in 1882, by Homer Merriam, Esq., of Springfield, and the other in 1884, by Edward Smith, Esq., of Enfield, Massachusetts. The income of these, by request of the donors, is loaned, rather than given, "in order to promote self-reliance and self-respect on the part of the pupil," who gives her note and pays interest. The gentleman last named, in addition to his own donation, labored much in soliciting gifts for the education fund from others; and the board passed a vote of thanks for his assiduous efforts. 

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The general fund has been very small until recently. Many years ago, a legacy of five thousand dollars was received from Mr. Henry Kendall, of Leominster, Massachusetts, the income of which has been used for general expenses. It was stated that he was led to make the bequest by observing the benefit received at the seminary by a certain pupil. In 1883, a legacy of twenty thousand dollars from Mr. John B. Eldridge, of Hartford, was added to the general fund; and in 1885, a like amount - the larger part of a bequest from Mr. Eber Gridley, of Hartford - was appropriated to the same purpose, the remainder being reserved for buildings and improvements. About five thousand dollars from other bequests has been added to the fund. 

Some years since, Mrs. Julia M. Tolman, formerly associate principal, left to the seminary between three and four thousand dollars, the income of which should be used for special grants to teachers, for purposes of health and improvement. It was the hope of the donor that this might be the beginning of a much larger provision for the object. Small as the fund is, it has been of inestimable service to the teachers, on the one hand by furnishing them the means of rest and recreation from time to time; and on the other, by enabling them to enlarge their resources by attending lectures, or visiting other institutions of learning. 

The following table recapitulates the amounts given above, including also the Goodnow Park fund and the Boswell fund for the library, previously mentioned: 

For aiding students, 

    Education Fund, $45,000 00 
    Homer Merriam Loan Fund, 5,000 00 
    Edward Smith Loan Fund, 5,000 00     $55,000 00
For general purposes, 
    Eldridge Bequest, $20,000 00 
    Gridley Bequest, 20,000 00 
    Other Bequests, 10,000 00             50,000 00
Tolman Fund, . . . . . . .                  3,640 00 
Goodnow Park Fund, . . . . . . .            5,000 00 
Boswell Fund, . . . . . . .                 1,000 00 

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Thus far, the seminary has done its work with little income besides the receipts for board and tuition of pupils. It has almost invariably succeeded in "making the ends meet," year by year, so far as ordinary expenses are concerned; often with a slight surplus, which has been carefully saved toward the special outlays sometimes required. There is now in progress an effort by the alumnae to raise the. modest sum of twenty thousand dollars, to be called "The Mary Lyon Fund," for endowing the principal's chair. Endowments for all the departments are no less essential, in order that the continued growth and prosperity of the institution - so far as they depend on material resources - may be reasonably assured. 

Compared with earlier years a much larger proportion of the young ladies enter with the intention of completing the course, and actually do so. Candidates are not admitted until they are sixteen years of age, and many are older. A recent junior class on entering averaged eighteen years and two months. The age at graduation is generally between twenty-one and twenty-two. 

Requirements for admission now include, besides the common English branches, preparation in Latin, algebra, and geometry. The fiftieth annual catalogue contains the following 

SYNOPSIS OF THE COURSE OF STUDY:
JUNIOR YEAR.
Latin: Cicero de Senectute; with exercises in Prose Composition, and in Reading at Sight. Mathematics: Olney's University Algebra and Chauvenet's Geometry. History: Ancient, to the Fall of the Roman Empire. Constitution of the United States: Andrew's Manual. Physiology: Huxley and Youmans. Botany: General Morphology, and Classification of Phaenogams. Rhetoric, with Exercises in English Composition. Elocution: Instruction in Classes. Vocal Music: Lessons in Choral Classes. Gymnastics. 
JUNIOR MIDDLE YEAR.
French or German: Text-books of Sauveur and Wenckebach. Mathematics: Olney's Trigonometry. History: Mediaeval and Modern. Botany: General Histology and Physiology; Systematic Botany continued. 

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Mineralogy: Dana's Manual. Zoology: Packard's; Jordan's Manual of Vertebrates. Chemistry: Houston's, with Eliot and Storer's Manual. Elective: Biology, Advanced Chemistry, or Mathematics. Elocution: Class Exercises. Vocal Music: Choral Classes. English Composition.  Gymnastics. 

SENIOR MIDDLE YEAR.

Latin: Virgil's AEneid. Physics: Atkinson's Ganot. Astronomy: Newcomb and Holden's. Geology: Dana's. English Literature: Shaw's Manual and Brooke's Primer, with topical studies of authors. Rhetoric: Welsh's Complete Rhetoric. Elective: Livy or Tacitus; advanced work in Natural Science, Literature, or Mathematics. Elocution: Class Exercises. English Composition. Vocal Music: Choral Classes. Gymnastics. 

SENIOR YEAR.

Latin: Cicero de Immortalitate; Selections from Horace. Ancient Literature: Outlines from Quackenbos and Schlegel, with topical studies of authors. Psychology: Hickok's. Ethics: Hickok's Moral Science. History of Art: Outlines from Luebke, and topical studies. Theism and Christian Evidences: Studies from Fisher's Grounds of Theistic and Christian Belief, Wright's Logic of Christian Evidences, and Butler's Analogy. English Composition. Elocution: Class Exercises. Vocal Music: Choral Classes. Gymnastics. 

COURSE OF BIBLE STUDY.

A comprehensive course of Bible study is regularly pursued, in weekly lessons, throughout the four years, as follows:- 
Junior Year - Genesis and Exodus; the Gospels. Junior Middle Year - Joshua, Judges, and Samuel; Acts. Senior Middle Year - Kings and Chronicles; Hebrews. Senior Year - The Prophetical Books; Romans. 

OPTIONAL COURSES IN LANGUAGES.

The following optional courses are pursued in Greek, French, and German: To one who completes either, a special diploma is given, as they are additional to the regular curriculum. 

GREEK COURSE.

First Year - White's Lessons and Goodwin's Grammar; Xenophon's Anabasis. Second Year - Selections from Herodotus and Thucydides; Homer's Iliad or Odyssey. Third Year - Demosthenes's Olynthiacs and Philippics; Prometheus of Aeschylus. Fourth Year - Plato's Apology; Antigone of Sophocles; Alcestis of Euripides. Prose Composition and reading at sight, each year. 

FRENCH COURSE.

First Year - Sauveur's Causeries avec mes Eleves; Fables de La Fontaine, some of them committed to memory; Grammar. Second Year - Sauveurís Contes Merveilleux, read and made the subject of conversation; Litterature Francaise Contemporaine, by Pylodet; Grammaire 

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Francaise pour les Anglais, by Sauveur; Written and Oral Exercises. Third Year - Sauveur's Grammar concluded; Select Modern Plays; Poetry; Athalie by Racine. Fourth Year - Histoire de la Litterature Francaise, by Cart; Translations from English into French; Compositions; L'Avare, by Moliere; Le Cid, by Corneille; Selections from Madame de Sevigne, La Bruyere, Merimee, Victor Hugo, George Sand, Lamartine. 

GERMAN COURSE.

First Year - Object Lessons: Deutscher Anschauungs-Unterricht fur Amerikaner, by Wenckebach; Das Deutsche Buch der Sauveur Schule; Grammar; Poetry committed to memory. Second Year - Grammar: Written and Oral Exercises; Deutsche Grammatik fur Amerikaner, by Wenckebach; Grimm's Maerchen; Hoeher als die Kirche, by Wilh. Von Hillern; Undine, by Fouque; Poetry: Die Schoensten Deutschen Lieder, selected by Wenckebach. Third Year - Grammar; German Prose Composition, by Buchheim; Lyric Poems; Die Jungfrau von Orleans, by Schiller; Minna von Barnhelm, by Lessing. Fourth Year - History of German Literature; Letters and Compositions; Poetry: Ballads by Goethe, Schiller, and Uhland; Schiller's Wilhelm Tell; Lessing's Nathan der Weise; Goethe's Iphigenie auf Tauris. 

DRAWING AND PAINTING.

Lessons are taken in charcoal-drawing front casts or models, and in sketching front nature. A normal class, also, is instructed in the elementary forms of design, and in outline drawing. Painting is taught, in both water-colors and oils. 

MUSIC.

All the students have regular lessons in choral classes. Private instruction in the cultivation of the voice, and in piano practice, is given by teachers who have studied in conservatories in this country and in Germany. 

[END OF CHAPTER XVII] 

subject index